Tôm thẻ chân trắng

White leg shrimp with thin shell is milky white, so it is called Silver shrimp, normally blue in color, beef legs are ivory white, so it is called white leg shrimp. English name: White Shrimp Scientific name: Lipopenaeus vannamei Other name:Penaeus vannamei CLASSIFICATION Division:Arthropoda Class:Malacostraca Order:Decapoda Family:Penaeidae Breed:Litopenaeus Species:Lipopenaeus vannameiBoone, 1931 CHARACTERISTICS Thin-shelled white shrimp opaque, so it’s called Silver shrimp, normally blue in color, ivory white in color, so it’s called white leg shrimp. The shank is the part that extends to the abdomen. There are 2-4 serrations under the club, sometimes 5-6 serrations on the ventral side. Those serrations extend, sometimes up to the second vertebra. The cephalothorax has very prominent veins and antennae, no eye and caudal spines (telssm spines), no posterior sulcus, rather long posterior ridge sometimes from the posterior edge of the cephalothorax. The lateral ridge is short, extending only to the epigastric spine. There are 6 abdominal segments, in the oviparous segment, the abdominal groove is very narrow or absent. Telsson (tail spine) is not branched. The beard has no extra spines and the length of the antennae is much shorter than that of armor. The dice of the first lower jaw is elongated and usually has 3-4 rows, the end of the dice is whip-shaped. The basal and ischial spines are located on the first segment of the thorax. DISTRIBUTION Shrimp Lipopenaeus vannamei (Bone 1931) is a tropical shrimp, distributed along the eastern coast of the Pacific Ocean, from the Peruvian Sea to Southern Mexico, the Equado Sea; Currently, vannamei has been bred in many East Asian and Southeast Asian countries such as China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. BEHAVIORS In natural waters, whiteleg shrimp is adapted to live in muddy bottom, about 72 m deep, can live in salinity in the range of 5 – 50 ‰, suitable in seawater salinity 28 – 34 ‰. , pH = 7.7 – 8.3, suitable temperature 25 – 32oC, but they can live at 12 – 28oC. Whiteleg shrimp are omnivores like other shrimp species. However, it does not require high protein foods like black tiger shrimp. Whiteleg shrimp have a fast growth rate, they grow faster than black tiger shrimp in adulthood. Under natural conditions, from fry to 40g shrimp takes about 180 days or from 0.1g can grow up to 15g in 90-120 days. It is an important farming object after black tiger shrimp. Reproduction Whiteleg shrimp mature early, the female has a weight of 30-45 g/head can participate in spawning. In natural areas where whiteleg shrimp are distributed, whiteleg shrimp can be caught all year round. However, the spawning season of whiteleg shrimp in the sea is different for example: in the northern coast of Ecuador, shrimp spawn from December to April. The number of eggs of each spawning season depends on the size of the mother: If the mother shrimps, From 30 to 45g, the number of eggs is from 100,000 to 250,000 eggs, egg diameter is 0.22mm. After each egg laying, the shrimp ovary develops again. The time between 2 calvings is 2-3 days apart. Children give birth at most 10 times/year. Usually, after 3-4 consecutive spawns, there is a time of molting. After laying 14-16 hours, the eggs hatch into Nauplius larvae. Nauplius larvae go through 6 stages: Zoea through 3 stages, Mysis through 3 stages into Postlarvae. The length of Postlarvae shrimp P.Vannamei is about 0.88 – 3mm. CURRENT STATUS
Natural extraction yield
There are many Latin American countries on the East Pacific coast that have whiteleg shrimp fisheries such as Peru, Ecuador, El Sanvado, Panama, and Costa Rica. Because shrimp resources are very small and volatile, shrimp fishing does not develop. In 1992-1993 there was a record production of 14,000 tons and in 1999 it increased to 8 thousand tons. In general, the natural exploitation output is not significant. Natural shrimp resources are exploited mainly broodstock to serve the highly developed artificial shrimp farming in the area. In addition, the collection of natural shrimp seed for artificial shrimp farming also plays an important role. Therefore, countries have switched to farming mainly.
Current status of white leg shrimp farming
The whiteleg shrimp is the most commonly farmed shrimp species (accounting for more than 70% of South American shrimp species) in the Western Hemisphere (Wedner and Rosenberry, 1992). The production of whiteleg shrimp is only behind the total production of farmed black tiger shrimp in the world. American countries such as Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama… are the countries that have developed vannamei shrimp farming since the early 90s, in which Ecuador is the
The country is leading in terms of production, in 1998 alone reached 191,000 tons. Currently, the estimated export value of vannamei shrimp per 1 kg is 81% of that of black tiger shrimp (about 8 USD/kg compared to 10 USD/kg).
Main farming countries
In the Americas, there are 12 countries that raise vannamei shrimp. At their peak (1998) their production accounted for more than 90% of farmed shrimp production in the Western Hemisphere. The following are the high yielding countries. 1. Equado:
For a long time, Ecuador has been a famous shrimp farming country in the world and has always been at the top until 1999. Shrimp farming is a major production industry and the third largest source of export for this country (behind oil and gas and banana). The shrimp farming industry developed right from the end of the last decade. By 1991, the production of farmed shrimp (95% of whiteleg shrimp) was 103 thousand tons, ranking fourth in the world. The 1993 shrimp disease epidemic (Taura TSV syndrome) devastated the concentrated shrimp ponds along the banks of the Taura River, reducing production by one-third. After only 2-3 years, Equado restored vannamei farming and production increased rapidly to 120,000 tons in 1998 and 130,000 tons in 1999, accounting for 70% of the production of whiteleg shrimp in the Americas. In 1999, the white spot disease epidemic developed and peaked in 2000. Not only Ecuador suffered heavy losses, but other countries such as Peru, Mexico, Panama, El. Sanvado… were all affected. big losses. The loss of white leg shrimp production due to white spot virus is about 100 thousand tons. Equado’s whiteleg shrimp production in 2000 was only about 35,000 tons. Equifax’s loss is estimated at 500-600 million USD. Equivao from No. 2 position in the world (1998) in terms of farmed shrimp production has quickly dropped to 6th position (2000). The possibility of returning to the golden age of 1998 is difficult, expensive, and long-lasting. They are considering converting diseased shrimp ponds to export pink tilapia. Many good shrimp farmers have migrated to other countries to practice such as Brazil, Colombia…
Although it was once the second largest shrimp farming country in the world, but Ecuador still chooses the farming method mainly semi-intensive with an average yield of about 700-800 kg/ha. Although the shrimp seed production industry is ranked first in the Americas and the world, it only meets 70% of the demand, the rest are fishermen who pick up wild shrimp seed. 2. Mexico
Previously, Mexico was only interested in exploiting wild shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico for export to the US. Equado’s great success in exporting vannamei shrimp not only created a huge farming movement in Mexico but also in a number of Latin American countries (including the US). Mexico quickly became the second largest whiteleg shrimp farming country in the Americas with a very rapid increase in production from 2,000 tons in 1990 to 16,000 tons in 1994 and then 24,000 tons in 2000. If it weren’t for spotted disease, white shrimp, the output of whiteleg shrimp in Mexico may have exceeded 30,000 tons. Mexico’s ambitious program of exporting whiteleg shrimp was halted due to a shrimp disease outbreak in 2000. 3. Panama
Ranked third in vannamei shrimp farming with an output of 10 thousand tons in 1999. However, white spot disease does not exclude farmed shrimp of this country. Output in 2000 was only 7,000 tons. 4. Other countries
Following the three leading countries in whiteleg shrimp farming, which are Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama, are other Latin American countries such as Belize, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia… ambitious plan to develop whiteleg shrimp farming for export to the US. As mentioned, white spot disease spread throughout the Americas in the years 1999-2000, causing great losses to many developing countries. If effective measures are not found soon to prevent and control the disease, it is possible that the white leg shrimp farming movement in the region, which has just been launched, will be greatly affected. 5. White leg shrimp is being bred from East to West Pacific
After being successfully and effectively artificially cultured in many countries in the Americas, vannamei shrimp were bred to be farmed in Hawaii and Hoholulu of the United States. From here, whiteleg shrimp spread to East Asia and Southeast Asia. China is the first Asian country interested in vannamei shrimp. Since 1998, they have announced successful whiteleg shrimp farming and are ready to transfer technology (providing seed and farming techniques) to Asian countries that want to import. In 2000, it was reported that China exported vannamei shrimp products, but it is not clear how much or how little. However, in China’s domestic market, consumers are not interested in this object. Many other Asian countries such as Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam…. also imported whiteleg shrimp for farming with the hope of diversifying export shrimp products to avoid the situation of relying mainly on black tiger shrimp as at present.
About white leg shrimp foreign trade
Vannamei shrimp is a rare and valuable species with a large and expanding market. Before the white spot disease epidemic in 2000, the production of white leg shrimp was second only to black tiger shrimp and was the main farmed and exported object of dozens of countries in the Americas. Previously, the value of vannamei shrimp was on par with that of black tiger shrimp. However, recently, American consumers have preferred Asian black tiger shrimp, so the value of vannamei shrimp has decreased somewhat (according to FAO in 1999, the average value of raw whiteleg shrimp was 5.5 USD/kg while that of whiteleg shrimp). black tiger shrimp is 6.5 USD/kg). Ecuador is the largest exporter of whiteleg shrimp with a record volume of 114 thousand tons in 1998 with a value of USD 852 million, the average export price is USD 8/kg. However, after only one year exports fell by 70%. The volume of whiteleg shrimp exported to the US in 1998 was 65,000 tons. In 2000, it was only 17,000 tons. Most of the exporting whiteleg shrimp farming countries suffered great losses in 2000. Previously, almost only the US market was the main importer of whiteleg shrimp from Latin American countries. From the mid-1990s and especially after the Japanese shrimp market weakened, Asian black tiger shrimp flooded to the US. With more advantages, Asian black tiger shrimp has fiercely competed with whiteleg shrimp of the Americas. The American vannamei exporters were forced to find new markets. The EU and Japan open their doors to receive mainly whiteleg shrimp products with good quality but cheaper prices than black tiger shrimp. Thus, currently, although the US is still the main market, but the market share is only 60-70%, Spain, France, Japan…. are important markets for whiteleg shrimp in the Americas. White leg shrimp (P.vannamei) together with black tiger shrimp (P.monodon) and Chinese white shrimp (P.chinensis) are the three most important culture species of world shrimp farming at the present time. Due to its very high nutritional value, ease of rearing, rapid growth and large individual weight, whiteleg shrimp is as popularly farmed in the Western Hemisphere as black tiger shrimp in Asia. Besides the US, which is the largest consumer market, vannamei shrimp also has important markets such as the EU and Japan. Despite fierce competition from black tiger shrimp, vannamei is still favored by consumers in major markets and the demand is still high. Whiteleg shrimp is being interested by many shrimp farming countries in Asia with domestication and development of large-scale farming in order to diversify export products, gradually limiting the monopoly of black tiger shrimp. When advertising for the Technology transfer of white leg shrimp farming is usually only given their advantages. In fact, whiteleg shrimp also has major disadvantages in terms of disease tolerance. Although the history of whiteleg shrimp farming in the Americas is short, it has experienced two very serious diseases. Taura syndrome in 1992 – 1993 was quickly overcome, but in the past 1999 – 2000 years, white spot disease spread causing very serious damage. Remedial action is difficult and expensive. The possibility of returning to 1998 levels remains to be seen. Some localities in our country have imported whiteleg shrimp from many sources into experimental farming. It is very important to collect enough information about this subject, to draw experiences on the success and failure of whiteleg shrimp farming in the Americas.

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