Tea has long been known as a food used to make drinking water that many people love. Not only has the effect of cooling, but green tea leaves also bring many benefits to human health. Tea is one of the important industrial crops of great significance to farmers in the midland and mountainous areas in the process of poverty reduction and economic development. To help people have more general knowledge about how to grow tea, we would like to send it to the ministry Tea growing techniques Full for your reference.
1. Overview of tea plants
The scientific name of the tea plant is Camellia Sinensis.
In our country, tea is grown mainly in the midlands and hills, where there are high temperatures and heavy rainfall.
Tea is a perennial crop, with a harvest period lasting 30-40 years.
The economic value of the tea plant is the buds and young leaves, which are processed to supply the market.
1.1 Morphological characteristics
Tea is a much branched plant, the leaves grow from 4-15cm long, 2-5cm wide. The leaf margin is serrated, the tip of the leaf is pointed. Young leaves are light green, underside covered with short hairs containing about 4% caffeine used to make tea. As the tea leaves age, they turn dark green.
Tea flowers are yellowish-white, consisting of 7-8 petals folded, flower diameter from 2.5-4cm. Tea fruit is a capsule with a hard wood shell, the fruit has 2-4 seeds. The fruit usually ripens in October-January of the following year, the seeds of the tea tree contain essential oils.
1.2 What are the benefits of growing tea?
Tea leaves are considered medicinal herbs used to make tea. Not only has a cooling effect, but green tea also contains many ingredients that are beneficial to human health. Some of the antioxidants and beneficial compounds found in green tea include polyphenols, catechins, and other types of flavonoids. These ingredients have an effective anti-aging effect. Drinking tea also helps to eliminate toxins, reduce atherosclerosis and the risk of heart disease, lower blood sugar, improve memory and prevent cancer.
Tea leaves can be used fresh or dried.
Tea plants have a very long harvest time.
Tea is an industrial crop suitable for mountainous areas to help people reduce hunger and reduce poverty, and develop the economy very effectively.
Largest consumar market.
The market price of fresh and dried tea leaves is always stable.
2. Tea growing conditions
In addition to the nutritional factor, in Tea growing techniques Environmental factors have a great influence on the growth and development of tea plants.
Temperature plays an important role in the initiation and formation of tea buds, thereby affecting the harvest time and yield of tea hills.
Each different tea variety requires a certain temperature range for growth and development. The total amount of heat stored in a year for tea plants to grow is 3500-4000 degrees Celsius. For tea plants to grow and develop normally, the average annual temperature must be 12.5 degrees Celsius. The temperature is suitable for tea. Turn on the buds is 13-14 degrees Celsius.
If the temperature is too low or too high, it will affect the growth of tea plants, reducing the ability to accumulate concentrations tannin in tea buds will affect the quality of the product.
2.2 Humidity and precipitation
Tea is a moisture-loving plant, harvested products are buds and young leaves, so humidity and rainfall greatly affect the yield and quality of tea.
The soil moisture suitable for growing tea is 80-85% and the air humidity is at 75-80% or >80%.
Rainfall requirements of tea trees：total annual rainfall is from 1500-2000mm.
Tea is suitable for growing on low mountainous and midland terrain. The soil for growing tea needs to be loose, well-drained humus, and the cultivable layer is over 1m. The pH of the soil is suitable 4.5-6, there is groundwater 100cm below the ground.
Tea plants need light for photosynthesis. However, the light requirements of the tea plant will vary with the variety and age of the plant.
The large-leaf tea variety requires less light than the small-leaf tea, and the small-leaf tea requires less light than the big-leaf tea.
3. Tea growing technique – Choosing varieties and planting season
3.1 Selection of varieties
In order to successfully grow tea with high yield and quality, farmers need to apply the correct cultivation techniques from the selection of varieties, seasons, soil, to fertilization and disease prevention.
Currently, tea is propagated mainly by two methods: propagation by seeds and propagation by cuttings. Both methods use the original seed source carefully selected to meet the breeding standards to ensure the quality of seedlings.
In order for tea plants to grow well, for good tea quality, and for a long time to harvest, people must choose good tea varieties. This is an important step in tea cultivation techniques. A good tea variety needs to meet the following criteria:
- Healthy trees grow well, strong branching ability, give many buds and low percentage of blind buds.
- The plant has good tolerance to outdoor conditions, good resistance to pests and diseases.
- Contains high tannin content, good color and taste of tea.
- High productivity, stable.
Choosing the time to plant tea is very important affecting the growth and development of tea plants. Choosing the right planting time depends on the climate of the growing area.
In the provinces of the East – Northwest and North Central region, the most suitable planting time is in September, and for the highlands of the Central Highlands, the best time to plant tea is in June.
4. Density and way of growing tea
In order for tea plants to grow well, it is necessary to ensure appropriate planting density.
For good soil, suitable density is from 16,000 trees – 18,000 trees/ha, 25,000 trees/ha for bad soil.
4.2 Land preparation
Land for tea should be leveled, cleared of weeds, plowed about 30-40cm deep to make the soil loose. 2-3 months before planting tea, people can plant trees to improve the soil, cover the soil like legumes, and add gas to enrich the soil. About 1 month before planting tea, cut the whole plant down and bury it in the trench between the two rows of tea to make fertilizer.
Depending on the terrain, people can design tea hills accordingly. In places where the terrain has an average slope of less than 8 degrees, people design straight and parallel rows of tea along the longest row, and dead rows are arranged at the edge of the plot. Where the average slope is > 8 degrees, the tea rows are designed in contour rows, dead-end rows are arranged alternately and concentrated in double rows.
4.3 Planting techniques
Dig trenches with the size of 40x40m and the distance between the trenches is 1.3m to grow tea.
Planting distance：Row 1.3 – 1.35m, tree 0.35 – 0.4m
Use rotten organic fertilizer（20-30 tons/ha）combined with phosphate fertilizer（100- 150 kg/ha）mix well and spread evenly over the dug canals, then cover with loose soil above the surface. soil 5-10 cm.
On the lined tea row, dig a hole 20-25cm deep, place the seedling pot in the hole downwind, then fill it with soil and compact it. Then use straw to cover the roots to keep the roots moist.
To make the process of composting effective, people can use it Probiotics Trichoderma, EM for composting. Compost that is composted with the preparation will be balanced with essential nutrients for easy absorption by plants, improved productivity and a very good soil improvement effect. Interested people visit
Trichoderma probiotics are products researched and produced by the Institute of Applied Biology, containing Trichoderma fungi, which are antagonistic fungi with high effects in attacking, parasitizing and inhibiting many types of fungal diseases. Crops. Besides, Trichoderma also has the ability to promote the decomposition of organic matter, helping the soil to be loose and keeping the fertility of the soil.
Powder-based EM product is a biological product used in a variety of agricultural industries such as: composting manure, fish manure, soybeans, and waste as a nutrient-rich fertilizer. Treatment of aquaculture ponds. Inhibition of cyanobacteria. Eliminate toxic gases. Cook fermented foods. Deodorizing livestock barns, etc. With wide applications, the original powdered EM product is used by many farmers and farms.
Tea is a plant that likes scattered light, so in the tea hill, people need to plant many shade trees. For every 6-8 rows of tea, one row of shade trees will be planted with a density of 150-200 trees/ha. Can grow pointed leaves and yellow flowers.
5. Tea growing techniques – Care for tea plants
Tea is a perennial crop, so if cared for properly, it can last for 30-40 years.
5.1 Basic construction period
This is the period of 2-3 years after planting, at this stage when the trees are young, people should pay attention to apply the right care techniques, which will create a premise for the tea plantation in the harvesting stage to achieve the highest yield.
After about 1-2 months of planting, farmers conduct an inspection of the entire tea growing area. When dead trees are detected, replanting is carried out to ensure planting density
The technique of cutting and shaping
When the tea hill has about 70% of the trees 65 – 70cm tall, the diameter of the root is > 1cm, people cut and shape. The suitable cutting time is from December to January next year.
Divided into 2 stages：
- Stage 1, when the tea tree is 2 years old, cut down the main stem 20-25cm above the ground, cut the side branches 35-40cm.
- Stage 2, when the tea tree is 3 years old, cut 30-35cm above the ground.
The technique of picking and shaping
For tea trees that are 1 year old, people pick the tops in October, choose trees 60cm or more high to press so that the tea tree will grow and develop horizontally.
– Fertilization：The amount of fertilizer includes 20-30 tons of organic fertilizer, 500kg of superphosphate/ha/year.
How to apply: Fertilizer is mixed well and applied 6-8cm deep, 30cm from the root, then filled.
5.2. Business period
– Watering tea: Tea is a plant for harvesting buds and young leaves, so for tea plants, moisture is a decisive factor to yield and product quality. Tea plants need to be regularly replenished and stripped of water to ensure soil moisture for good growth.
Weeding for tea twice a year, creating favorable conditions for tea plants to grow, limiting pests and diseases.
– Fertilization: This period depends on the growth needs of the tree, but people use a reasonable and balanced amount of fertilizer. Should use decaying organic fertilizers, bio-organic fertilizers, micro-organisms to fertilize plants. Do not use fresh manure to fertilize tea plants.
6. Tea growing technique – Pest control
There are a number of pests and diseases on tea that cause poor plant growth and reduce tea yield and quality. People should regularly check tea plantations to promptly detect and prevent them to achieve the highest efficiency.
6.1 Some harmful insects on tea
- Green planthoppers suck sap on young buds, causing them to wither and die.
- Mosquito bugs: they use suckers to make tea buds bent and blackened.
- Silk beetle: clinging and sucking nutrients on the surface of young leaves.
Prevention: cleaning tea plantations, clearing weeds to avoid creating hiding places for pests, raising natural enemies such as bees, ants, spiders to destroy and remove their eggs
6.2 Types of spiders that damage tea
Red-brown spider: harms by sucking sap on old and dull leaves. Injured leaves are present on reddish brown and white spots. Leaves stop growing, die and fall off. Spiders usually cause damage in February-May and September-November.
Scarlet spider: appears and damages from August to December. Spiders damage the underside of leaves and petioles, causing white spots on leaves.
Prevention: Planting shade trees, using specialized chemical insecticides.
Some diseases of tea
Tea leaf blister disease: Caused by fungus, forming dry blisters on leaves, to prevent using copper-based drugs to spray after leaf picking.
Tea bud rot disease: Usually when the weather is hot and humid, the damaged tea buds turn black and then rot.
Prevention: use copper-based drugs Cu, increase the amount of potassium fertilizer, fast harvest.
Brown spot disease in tea: caused by a harmful fungus, the lesions are concentric dark brown circles spreading in a wavy shape.
Use Cu-based drugs, spray 1 week before harvest.
7. Tea growing techniques – tea picking.
Tea picking is a job in Tea growing techniques. Picking the right technique will create conditions for the tea plant to grow healthy and increase yield and product quality. In the picking technique, there are 2 stages: the technique of leaving and the technique of picking buds.
For the leavening technique, it includes keeping according to the season and keeping according to the growth status of the tea plantation. For well-developed tea hills, less is left than for poorly developed tea hills. Low cut tea leaves more than high cut tea.
Bud collection technique: Based on processing requirements, there are different forms of bud collection. You can pick 1 shrimp + 1 leaf, pick 1 shrimp + 1,2 leaves, pick 1 shrimp + 2 leaves, pick 1 shrimp + 2,3 leaves, pick old tea.
Here are the full shares about Tea growing techniques for high yield. Interested people can refer to it to apply to their family’s tea plantation. Wish you have a successful tea harvest.
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