I. Lychee varieties:
1. Thanh Ha lychee:
The fruit is almost round, the skin is red yellow, the fruit is small, the weight is 15-20g/fruit, the seeds are flat, the pulp/fruit ratio is 74%, drained, sweet, fragrant, slightly sour, ripe in June, counting. high stability.
2. Phu Ho lychee:
There are 2 types of fruit, pointed ass, flat seeds and flat ass, big seeds. Crimson rind, large fruit, fruit weight 30g/fruit, pulp/fruit ratio 70%, drained, ripening 5-7 days earlier than Thanh Ha lychee.
3. Xuan Dinh fabric:
The characteristics are similar to Thanh Ha lychee, larger fruit, crimson skin, delicious quality.
II- Techniques for planting and caring for lychee
1. Select land:
Lychee is not picky about soil, the important requirement of lychee soil is drainage, thick soil layer, however, for growing by cuttings, the root part is poorly developed, put on the hill must keep good moisture and keep the tree. from root-laying to ensure a high post-planting survival rate.
– For hilly soil, litchi must be planted at a place with a low slope of less than 25oC, must be planted along contour lines and must have anti-erosion tapes.
2. Planting season:
– Spring crop: planting in March and April
– Harvest crop August-September.
3. Planting density:
400 plants/ha, planting distance 6m x 4m.
4. Dig planting holes:
– The land is flat, low, digging holes 70-80 cm wide, 70 cm deep; hill soil dug holes 70-80 cm wide, 80-100 cm deep, topsoil to one side.
5. Fertilizer lining:
1 month before planting, mix 20-30 kg of manure, 0.7 kg of phosphate + grass + garbage + green manure to fill the hole and then fill the hole with topsoil.
6. Planting trees:
When planting, make a small hole in the middle of a predetermined hole, 15-20 cm deep, place the tree and then cover the pot with soil, press firmly with your hand (note not to use your foot as a potting set). After planting, drive the stake, tie the tree to the pole against the wind to shake the root – after planting, water the tree.
a. Watering: After planting, water must be regularly watered to keep the plants moist for fast rooting.
b. Fertilization: The first three years use diluted fertilizer water for irrigation. From the 4th year onwards, annually fertilize each plant with 40-50 kg of manure + 1.5 kg of urea nitrogen + 2 kg of phosphorus + 0.7 kg of potassium, divided into 3 batches to fertilize.
Phase 1: October-November, apply 100% manure + 40% nitrogen + 40% phosphorus.
Phase 2: December-January, fertilize at the dissolution of flower sprouts, apply 40% of nitrogen + 30% of phosphorus + 40% of potassium.
Phase 3: March and April, apply all the fertilizers that need to be applied in the year.
c. Trimming and shaping:
– As soon as the tree is in the nursery, give the tree a main stem and 3 branches facing 3 directions.
– Annually cut off toothpicks, overshoots, and diseased branches. Remove winter branches, take care of autumn and spring branches.
– When the tree produces fortune-telling (the first flower and fruit), it is necessary to cut off the activity for a healthy tree.
d. Pest control:
– Bugs: Thrives in March-April to cause fruit drop, use Drotox, Bi 58 concentration 0, 1-0, 7%, Dipterex concentration 1% spray to eliminate young bugs, or choose a dark day to shake the tree. , bugs fall down to catch and kill.
Branch borers: Adult caterpillars are hair clippers that lay eggs on branches, young caterpillars bore into branches, causing branches to break and dry. Use rattan spikes or steel wire to poke holes directly to kill worms. Use padan 15 SP, concentration 30-40g/10 liters of water into the wormhole.
– 4-legged spider: The mouth sucks on the underside of the leaves, shows red villi, cuts the damaged leaves and burns or uses chemical ortors with a spray concentration of 0.05-0, 1%, Bi 58 spray concentration 0, 1%.
III. Preservation and processing:
– To put the fruit in a punctured polyethylene bag, it can be kept at a temperature of 70C for 5 weeks, in general, it is very difficult to preserve fresh fruit for lychee.
– Currently, people process dried lychee, lychee juice, etc., all of which are highly valued for their nutrition and economy.
Pests and diseases of lychee plants
1. Velvet Spiders:
Symptoms: look closely at the young leaves in the morning, if the leaves are shriveled and bent, the underside of the leaves shows a fine white hair that is a spider mite that has arisen.
– It is necessary to remove or spray chemicals to destroy winter buds, to cut off the food source, cut off the transition to the next spring crop, reduce the density of spiders arising on flowers and young fruits.
– At the end of February and beginning of March, check regularly if spiders are detected, then use special sprays for spiders such as Pegasus 500 SC, Ortus 5SC, Comite.
2. Brown bugs
Control of brown bugs has 2 important stages:
– In August and September, if many bugs are detected, they need to be prevented. Can use racquets, shake to destroy or spray chemicals. The effectiveness of this control period will reduce the density of young bugs in the spring crop in February and March.
– Break the nest of bugs in the spring crop in February and March.
– When on the flower cluster and young fruit at the end of March and April, there is a density of young bugs ≥ 2/inflorescence that needs chemical spraying.
– The most effective and most commonly used chemical insecticide spray is Sherpa 25 EC, 40 EC.
3. Fruit stem borer
The fruit stem borer both causes damage to the yield and quality of the fruit.. Butterflies, eggs and larvae are very small, difficult to detect, so important prevention is the use of chemical drugs. Now mainly farmers use periodic spraying to prevent fruit borers and usually have to spray 3 or 4 times to prevent within a certain limit of damage. So the cost is very high. On the contrary, if there is no prevention, the rate of fruit damage can be up to 70-80%.
– The fruit borer moth usually blooms in late April and early May. The period from laying eggs to hatching eggs is 7-10 days. The time of spraying is when the eggs hatch, this point is difficult to discern because the eggs and larvae are very small. So, it is best to spray insecticide when lychee seeds turn from green to brown, or 1 month before harvesting. Chemical insecticide spray can be used Sherpa 25EC , Regent 5 SC , Padan 95SP concentration 1/1000 , Pegasus 500ND concentration 1/800 .
Note that when spraying, it is recommended to use a high-pressure sprayer, spray from the inside of the canopy and shoot from outside the canopy, the prevention efficiency is higher. Make sure the pre-harvest quarantine period is as recommended on the product’s packaging.
4. Prevention of anthracnose (causes eczema, fruit rot).
Disease reduces fruit design. Severe disease lychee fruit not ripe. Anthracnose usually first appears at the end of April after the young fruit has formed 10-15 days. The disease develops strongly from mid-May when the weather is hot and humid with showers and lasts until the fruit is harvested. The time of spraying is suitable when the disease appears with the disease rate < 5%.
To prevent and control the disease effectively, it is necessary to pay attention to the following methods:
– Prune branches, clean the garden for ventilation.
– Fertilize balance, do not apply nitrogen fertilizer in the period of large fruit.
– Sufficient water, not to be limited to the fruit development stage.
Chemical drugs to prevent diseases: Bavistin 50 Fl, Anvil, Topsin M are effective insecticides.
5. Prevention of late blight.
Downy mildew on fabric is also a relatively common disease. The disease occurs on buds, flowers, young fruit and is most harmful in the ripening period from the end of June. The main source of disease transmission is fungal spores in the soil left over from the remnants of the previous crop.
Important preventive measures are:
– Garden cleaning: pruning the first crop, collecting the remnants of the previous crop and destroying them.
– Build a good drainage system.
– Prevention of diseases by chemical drugs focuses only on the period of ripe lychee fruit, regularly checking the garden, especially when the weather has a lot of rain. Notice the clusters of fruit under the tree hidden in the canopy and close to the ground. In this part, the disease usually appears first and then spreads to a higher level.
Ridomil Gold 68 WP, Ridomil MZ 72 WP is the most effective insecticide. If the disease is severe, it is necessary to spray 2 times 7 days apart.
6. Prevention of plant drooping disease
Downy mildew disease is caused by a group of soil-borne fungi such as Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium… Symptoms of the disease are plant growth stops, leaves turn from green to light green, then yellow. Pathogenic fungi survive in soil in association with abundant water, fertilizer and soil regimes. Therefore, preventive measures to pay attention to are:
– Build a good drainage irrigation system.
– Fertilize in a reasonable balance, attach importance to organic fertilizers.
– Cut down trees, combine fertilizing with compost mixed with Trichodecma or powdered lime products, spread evenly and fill with light soil, water with 5% Bordo solution, or 2% Cu Sulphate
To limit pests and diseases of lychee, farmers need to well implement integrated control measures:
* Cultivation method
+ Density: For midland and hilly areas, the planting density is from 160-170 trees/ha, and the density of plain land is < 150 trees/ha. New planting should be planted thickly to create a low canopy convenient for care. 100 plants/ha in bad soil, 280 trees/ha in fertile soil.
+ Healthy and disease-free seedlings, good quality, do not use diseased plants as seeds.
+ Pruning trees, cutting pests and diseases, cleaning the garden are considered the most important farming methods in:
– Reduce the source of pests and diseases transferred to the next crop.
Create an unfavorable environment for the emergence and development of pests and diseases.
– Make young buds grow fast, big and healthy.
Execution of pruning: August, September after fruit harvest. Cut off ineffective branches and diseased branches. The older the garden, the more pruned branches are for the garden to be open.
+ Active irrigation and drainage system to avoid flooding when it rains. When there is a drought, it must always be watered, especially during the fruiting period. In fact, litchi gardens are poorly drained, often suffering from late blight and drooping diseases. Severe drought often causes anthracnose disease, brown spots leading to fruit cracking when meeting rainy weather.
+ Use fertilizers and fertilize appropriately.
– It is recommended to use decayed manure to supplement the annual lychee in 2 phases: 1st in September, after felling and pruning to promote autumn buds, 2nd phase in early April to promote fruit.
– NPK chemical fertilizers should only be applied 2 times: in February to promote flowers, at the end of April to promote fruit, the amount of fertilizer depends on the age of the tree, the average tree is 5-10 years old, the amount of fertilizer for one tree/year: Urea 1 kg, phosphorus super 1 , 5 kg , potassium chloride 1 , 5 kg .
– It is not recommended to use nitrogen fertilizer separately to fertilize the fruit at the fruit development period (from the end of April onwards) to avoid causing fruit cracking.
– Break the nest, collect adult bugs by shaking the tree when the bugs overwinter and then destroy.
– Cutting off winter and spring buds when the appearance of villi spiders will have the effect of limiting the increase in spider populations.
* Biological measures
– Use pheromone traps (set 5-10 pieces per hectare) from the end of April-May, which has a good predictive effect on the prevention of fruit borers.
– Use Trichoderma antagonistic fungicides incubated with organic fertilizers around the canopy to limit the dislike of some fungi that exist in the soil, causing the death of lychee plants.
* Chemical measures
When pests and diseases arise, when the weather conditions are favorable, they will develop rapidly. So chemical measures are always the main and important way. When using it, you need to follow the 4 right principles (right medicine, right time, right concentration, right dose, right way).
#like lychee, #candied, #like lychee
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