Straw mushrooms are a fresh, nutritious, and health-promoting food that is popular with many people. Due to the increasing demand for straw mushrooms, many people have chosen to grow straw mushrooms for economic development. Today’s article would like to introduce to you Techniques for growing straw mushrooms for high economic efficiency.
1. Introduction of straw mushrooms
Straw mushrooms Also known as straw mushroom, straw hat mushroom has the scientific name is Volvariella Volvacea. This mushroom is very popular in Asia, in Vietnam straw mushroom is present in most provinces. However, the amount of straw mushrooms in the wild is very little, not enough to supply the market, so many people have turned to growing straw mushrooms to increase production to meet consumer demand. Techniques for growing straw mushrooms both simple, easy to do and fast to harvest, very suitable for household scale.
1.1 Morphological characteristics
Straw mushrooms are composed of the following parts: mushroom cap, mushroom plate, mushroom stalk, fungal envelope, and mycelium. When young, the mushroom lies in an egg-shaped sac, when the mushroom grows, the cap breaks the capsule and extends out. At this time, the mushroom has a flattened knob or hemisphere of brown or gray color, the mushroom flesh is gray-white, the stem is smooth, short and dark, the mushroom capsule is slightly swollen.
1.2 Economic value and use
Straw mushrooms have a short growth time, from incubation to harvest only takes about 3 weeks. Growing straw mushrooms indoors can yield many crops a year. Cultivation of simple straw mushrooms does not take much land, and the economic efficiency is stable.
Currently, the price of straw mushrooms ranges from 60-80,000 VND/ 1kg.
Straw mushroom is a clean food containing many vitamins such as A, B1, B3, D, E, C.
Mushrooms are used as raw materials to make many delicious and nutritious dishes. In the mushroom, there are 7 kinds of amino acids that are better for the body than in beef and soybean. Thanks to its high nutritional value, straw mushrooms also work very well for people who are sick or being treated for diseases. In addition, mushrooms are also effective in supporting the treatment of cancer, obesity, diabetes, anemia.
2. Conditions for growing straw mushrooms
Ambient temperature directly affects the growth and development of straw mushrooms. Mycelium grows best at a temperature of 30-35 degrees Celsius, at the stage of fruiting from 28-30 degrees Celsius. You can grow straw mushrooms indoors to control the temperature.
Humidity is an important factor that greatly affects the cultivation of straw mushrooms. The suitable humidity for the growth of mycelium is 70-75% and 65-70% for the fruiting stage. When the humidity is too high > 95% or too low < 60%, the mushrooms will be damaged.
The suitable pH for straw mushrooms is a neutral pH of about 7.0 – 7.5. When the pH is at an acidic level (pH < 6) or becomes alkaline (pH > 9) the mushroom grows poorly, the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms are not formed.
2.4. The light
When growing straw mushrooms, depending on the stage, we need to provide the appropriate amount of light. At the stage of growing mycelium, the mushroom does not have chlorophyll, so there is no need for light. If the light intensity is too high, the mycelium may die. At the stage of forming fruiting bodies, mushrooms need diffused light to stimulate the formation and development of fruit bodies and color them.
2.5 Degree of ventilation
Growing straw mushrooms at the stage of forming fruiting bodies of straw mushrooms needs high ventilation. The larger the mushroom body, the more oxygen is required for respiration, so this stage needs to ensure high ventilation for the fungus.
3. Techniques for growing straw mushrooms
3.1 Planting season
People can grow straw mushrooms at home all year round. However, on cold and windy winter days, it is necessary to carefully cover the mushroom tissue to keep warm. In the rainy season, the straw mushroom growing area needs a roof to avoid getting wet and waterlogged, affecting the growth of straw mushrooms. To overcome limitations due to the weather, people can grow straw mushrooms indoors.
3.2 Planting site
The location for growing straw mushrooms should be protected from sunlight so as not to affect the growth and development of mushrooms. The place to grow mushrooms needs to be flat, high, to avoid waterlogging, clean to avoid pathogens.
The best mushroom growing area should be near a water source to facilitate the care and harvesting of mushrooms.
3.3 Materials for growing straw mushrooms
Many materials can be used to grow straw mushrooms such as rice straw, bagasse, cotton wool, sawdust… However, people often use straw mainly because this source of material is very available. Straw used to grow mushrooms can be fresh or dried but must not have odors, rot or chemical drugs that will affect the yield of mushrooms.
Straw composting technique:
People need to apply the right techniques to process materials with high efficiency.
– Composting straw in piles: used for both dry and fresh straw. Straw is piled up, 1.5-2m wide, 4-8m long. For each layer of straw 20-30cm high, use water to water the straw evenly, then stomp it with your feet to flatten and continue to stack the next layers. until the straw pile has a height of 1.3-1.5m. Then take nylon, dry straw or banana leaves to cover it for incubation. After incubation for a few days, check the temperature in the compost pile to be about 60-70oC high. After incubating the straw for 10-12 days, the compost pile collapses, the height is about 0.8-1.0m. At this time, you can bring the straw to the bed.
– Treatment of lime water before incubation: Used for dry straw, without mold or pesticide residues, dipped in lime water mixed with the ratio of 3 kg lime per 100 liters of water. Dip the straw just enough to make it yellow. The purpose of this is to destroy the source of disease, the salt alum in the rice straw.
Soak in lime water for 20-30 minutes, then take it out, drain the water, pile it up in a pile with a width of 1.5-2m, a length of 4-8m, then lightly stomp the straw to collapse, take nylon, dried straw or banana leaves covered. After 2-3 days, people proceed to stir up the straw, squeeze the straw with their hands. If you see water seeping through your fingers, it’s fine, if the water flows in a stream, the straw is too wet, you need to remove the composting tools outside the school. If the straw is too dry, you need to add more water. Incubate for another 3-4 days, at this time the compost temperature is greater than 75 degrees Celsius is satisfactory, on the 7th and 8th day after incubation, check that the straw has no smell, sour smell, soft straw, color. Bright yellow is satisfactory.
Select breed cat:
It is an important step in the cultivation of straw mushrooms. Choosing good seed, right age, not contaminated with bacteria, fragrant will give high yield and good quality of mushrooms. Do not use bags of poor quality, sour, or contaminated mushrooms.
To find a reputable supplier of mushroom meow, you can refer to https://vbio.vn/meo-nam-rom/.
The Research Institute of Applied Biology is the direct producer of most of the products about Mushrooms. In addition, the Institute of Applied Biology also selects products sourced from reliable farm partners, with full state certification and inspection papers on clean and safe food.
Tissue and sprinkle with seed:
After the straw is incubated, the farmers carry out the process of mulching and sprinkling straw mushrooms. In the technique of growing straw mushrooms, this is the stage that determines the yield of straw mushrooms that need your attention. Spread a layer of composted straw on the bed with a width of about 50cm, a height of 20cm, then water and spread the seed along both sides of the bed, 5-7cm from the edge of the bed. Meows sow each cluster 15-20cm apart, stuffed 1-2cm deep. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th straw layers are similarly arranged with the tips slightly indented so that the tissue has a trapezoidal shape. The top layer is usually transplanted to 2-3cm deep and more distant from the tissue cover. The final layer coats along the tissue evenly on the surface and is thicker (about 2-3cm). Depending on the weather, arrange 3 or 4 layers: 3 layers in the dry season, 4 layers in the rainy season. Finally, while watering, gently press the straw down, smoothing the outer surface for smooth, neat tissue, which is convenient for the mushroom to grow and develop.
4. Straw mushroom care techniques
After applying the correct technique of growing straw mushrooms, it will be time to take care of the mushrooms to grow well for high yields.
In the cultivation of straw mushrooms, temperature and humidity are the two most important factors that determine the yield and quality of straw mushrooms. Humidity facilitates the decomposition of straw, which in turn creates heat in the fungal tissue. If the humidity is high, excess water will decrease the temperature, the fungal tissue will be cold. If the humidity is low, the lack of water will increase the temperature and the fungus will wither.
Therefore, people need to regularly check the fungal tissue by pulling a handful of straw in the middle of the bed, squeezing it tightly in the palm of their hand, the water is slightly dripping through the fingers. If the water does not flow through the fingers, it is dry, must add water to the mushrooms. If you see water flowing through your fingers into drops, it is too much water, you must stop watering and remove the tissue to allow the water to evaporate less.
After sprinkling mei from the 4th to the 8th day, check the temperature of the fungal tissue, if the temperature is at 35-38oC, it is satisfactory. People can adjust the temperature by watering and covering the tissue. If the temperature is high, the rice straw lacks water, so use a shower bucket to water the mushroom tissue. In the case of only increasing the temperature without lack of water, people remove the wet rice straw and replace it with dry straw to reduce heat. When testing the fungal tissue, the temperature is below 25 degrees Celsius, the cold tissue must stop watering, cover with nylon but at least 20 cm away from the fungal tissue to avoid steaming.
After transplanting mei for about 1 week, unload the straw and then scoop up the straw to prevent the mycelium from spreading, not creating mushrooms.
5. Techniques for growing straw mushrooms – Mushroom harvesting
Growing straw mushrooms is easy, after 10-14 days of incubation, they can be harvested. Mushrooms come out profusely on the 12th-15th day, then come out in 7-8 days, then the second batch is collected and harvested in 3-4 days, then the mushroom growing season is over.
Harvest twice a day. 1st time early in the morning before 6 o’clock. Second harvest at about 14-15 pm.
How to pick: Choose mushrooms with buds, slightly pointed ends. When picking, gently rotate the mushroom, separating it from the tissue. The foot of the fungus should not be left on the tissue, because the rotten part of the mushroom will damage the adjacent mushroom buds. After picking, close the shirt tightly.
Mushrooms after harvesting need to be consumed within 2-3 hours. If you want to keep the next day, you need to store it at a temperature of 10-150C.
6. Preventing diseases for straw fungus
In Straw mushroom cultivation techniqueThe most effective method to prevent diseases is to ensure the hygiene of the planting area and the tools and materials for growing mushrooms.
- For the ground: people need to dry the soil, water, hoe, sprinkle with lime, periodically change the ground so that the ground is always clean and free of disease.
- For raw materials and materials for growing mushrooms: straw must not rot, be sour, do not use moldy, damaged or harmful fungi.
- Water source: people use clean water, not contaminated with harmful chemicals to irrigate mushrooms.
- Mushroom growing tools: Wash and dry before using to grow mushrooms.
- Keep mushroom tissue warm: Always keep the tissue at a temperature of 32-35 degrees Celsius, cover with nylon in cold weather, tissue coat, in the sun, remove the tissue coat to create ventilation for fungal tissue.
- Regularly monitor to detect diseases, immediately kill the source of the disease to avoid spreading, clean up after each planting.
Here is the whole Technique of growing straw mushrooms for high economic efficiency for reference. Hopefully the information that we provide can help people grow straw mushrooms to get the most profit.
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